Hebrews 1 – God the Father, God the Son
There are some who are not very much interested in what the Holy Bible actually Teaches about the Lord Jesus Christ, but are content in believing their own “theories”, which are in fact, LIES from the devil!
I have many studies on Jesus Christ as Almighty God, on these forums, which are clear, and in great detail from what the Bible says about Jesus Christ. There can be no doubt to the honest person, that, in His Eternal Deity, Jesus Christ is 100% coequal, coeternal and coessential, with God the Father. This is abundantly clear to those who are open to what the Bible says, and not their own “theology”, which is human and corrupt.
In the first chapter in the Book of Hebrews, we have crystal clear Testimony of God the Father, to the Lord Jesus Christ. If accepted for what it says, there can be no doubt that the Father Himself confirms that Jesus Christ, is Yahweh, the Eternal, uncreated Almighty God.
In verse 6, we have the direct Command by God the Father, that Jesus Christ is to be WORSHIPPED:
“But when He again brings the Firstborn into the world, He says: “Let all the angels of God worship Him”
This verse is not in the Hebrew Masoretic Text, but there are two verses in the Old Testament, where the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the Septuagint, are clearly from where this Hebrews quote if from.
The Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) in Deuteronomy 32:43 reads:
“Rejoice, O heavens, together with him; and bow down to him all you gods, for he will avenge the blood of his sons, and will render vengeance to his enemies, and will recompense those who hate him, and will atone for the land of his people.”
And the Greek Old Testament, the Septuagint (LXX):
“Rejoice, heavens, with him, And let all the angels of God worship him: Rejoice, nations, with his people, And let all the children of God rely on him: For he avengeth the blood of his children, And will judge, and execute vengeance on his enemies, To them who hate him he will render retribution, And the Lord will purify the land of his people”
The Hebrew Masoretic Text (MT) reads:
“O nations, acclaim His people! For He'll avenge the blood of His servants, wreak vengeance on His foes, And cleanse the land of His people”
It is clear that the reading of the DSS, which is Hebrew, and that of the LXX, shows that the LXX used a Hebrew text that is similar to that of the DSS
And, again in the LXX of Psalm 96:7, we read, “Let all that worship graven images be ashamed, who boast of their idols; worship Him, all ye His angels”. The DSS is incomplete here.
How can we read of God the Father, Commanding that Jesus Christ is WORSHIPPED, if He is “inferior” to the Father? True Worship as in the Bible, is only for Almighty God, as is seen in both the Old and New Testaments. The fact that God the Father Commands this, and uses passages from the Old Testament, that refer to Yahweh, for Jesus Christ, is beyond any doubt very clear Testimony that Jesus Christ is Almighty God, and coequal with the Father. In Revelation 5:13-14, we have the absolute equality of the Father with Jesus Christ, Who are Honoured and Worshipped together. We also have the Testimony of Jesus Himself, in John 5:23, we He says that He is to be equally Honoured as the Father is. This is the same as being WORSHIPPED!
In verses 8-9, in Hebrews chapter 1, God the Father continues, in His direct address to Jesus Christ:
“But to the Son He says: "Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; a scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your Kingdom. You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness; therefore O God, Your God, has anointed You with the oil of gladness above Your companions”
These words are from Psalm 45:6-7, where they are used for Elohim:
“Your throne, O God, is forever and ever. The scepter of your kingdom is a scepter of uprightness; you have loved righteousness and hated wickedness. Therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness beyond your companions”
The oldest Greek manuscript for this passage in Hebrews, is the Papyri P46, dating about 200 AD, has an interesting reading for verse 8. Instead of “basileias sou” (your Kingdom), this manuscript, along with the Codices Sinaiticus and Vaticanus (4th century), read, “basileias autou” (His Kingdom). Which is a change in the pronoun, from the 2nd to the 3rd person, which here refers to “the Son”, and His Kingdom. This does confirm that we are to understand the words in the vocative, as a direct address to Jesus Christ, by God the Father.
In the Jewish Aramaic Targum on the Psalm, the words are used as a direct address to Jehovah, “The throne of Thy majesty, O Jehovah, abideth for ever and ever.” (Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges).
The Hebrew scholar, Aquila, who published a Greek Version of the Old Testament, in the middle of the 2nd century A.D., translates the Hebrew, by the Greek, “ho thronos sou thee”, which is undoubtedly the vocative, “Your throne, O God”. (Fredrick Field, Origen Hexapla, vol. II, pp. 162-163). It is clear, that as early as the 2nd century, the Hebrew was understood as the vocative, and not the nominative.
The New Testament by the Unitarian, Dr George Noyes, reads: “but of the Son: ‘Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever”. Another Unitarian, Dr George Winer, also admits that in Hebrews 1:8, the vocative is to be understood.
“The nominative (with the article) is sometimes used in an address, particularly in calling or commanding, thus taking the place of the vocative…H. i.8” (A Treatise on the Grammar of New Testament Greek, p.227)
There are some, who try to weaken this clear Testimony by God the Father, to God the Son, by assuming that the English should be translated as “God is Your Throne”, etc. Sadly, some who believe that Jesus is Almighty God, like the Greek scholar, Dr A T Robertson, are in error here, as they wrongly conclude, that either reading is acceptable. This is not the case in the present construction.
The Greek in verse 8 is, “ho thronos sou ho theos”. Which is a direct address by the Father, to the Son, in which case, is correctly translated in English, “Your Throne O God”, and not, “God [is] Your Throne”. What if it read, “ho thronos sou ho kurios”, would any translate this as, “Lord [is] Your Throne”? NO!, All will gladly accept the vocative, “Your Throne O Lord”, because it does not say GOD!
Verse 9 in the Greek is, “ho theos ho theos sou”, and also in the vocative, and should read: “O God, Your God”, where we have Two Who are GOD. This is how it was understood in the Greek Old Testament by Symmachus, published in the latter half of the 2nd century. (see, Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges). In this verse also Aquila uses the vocative, thee. (Fredrick Field, Origen Hexapla, vol. II, pp. 162-163). The early Jewish scholars accepted the words in Psalm 45:6-7, from where Hebrews 1:8-9 is taken, to be a direct address, with the meaning, "Your throne, O God”.
In verses 10-12, the Father continues to address Jesus Christ:
“And, You, Lord, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands; they will perish, but you remain; and they will all grow old like a garment; like a cloak you will fold them up, and they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will not fail’
This passage is also from the Psalms,
“O my God,” I say, “take me not away in the midst of my days—you whose years endure throughout all generations!” Of old you laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands. They will perish, but you will remain, they will all wear out like a garment. You will change them like a robe, and they will pass away, but you are the same, and your years have no end.” (102:24-27)
The Greek for “Lord” is “Kurie”, in Hebrews 1:10, is the vocative, “O Lord”, and equivalent to the “Elohim” in Psalm 102:24. The Father, by taking these words, and using them for Jesus Christ, is saying that “The Son” is the Actual Creator of the heavens and earth. Not just some secondary, or intermediate agent.
In Isaiah 48, we read:
“Listen to Me, O Jacob, And Israel, My called: I am He, I am the First, I am also the Last. Indeed My hand has laid the foundation of the earth, And My right hand has stretched out the heavens; When I call to them, They stand up together” (verses 12-13), where Jesus Christ is the Speaker, as is clear from verses 16 and 17.
In chapter 51, it says, “And you forget Yahweh your Maker, Who stretched out the heavens And laid the foundations of the earth”
There can be no doubt, that God the Father is telling Jesus Christ, that He, as Yahweh, is the Creator of the entire universe!
When we read in places like Hebrews 1:2, and John 1:3, where the Greek preposition “dia” is used for Creation. It is not to be understood as “agency”, as though the Father was Creating “through” Jesus Christ. But, as the original use of the preposition, “between, two”, as in Homer, “mutual operation, with one another”. Which agrees with the use of the plural in Genesis 1:26, “let US make man in OUR Image”, etc. And, Job 35:10, where it is literally, “God my Makers (‘ō·śāy, mas, plural)”; and Ecclesiastes 12:1, “Remember now your Creator”, the Hebrew is, “bō·wr·’e·ḵā, literally, “your Creators”.
We have Two distinct “Persons” Who are both equally GOD. Both, the Jehovah’s Witnesses, who deny the Deity of Jesus Christ; and Unitarians who deny there is more than One Person in the Godhead, are here refuted.
These passages are clear, that God the Father Himself Testifies, that Jesus Christ is the Eternal God, uncreated, and 100% coequal with Him.