Who Does Psalm 110:5 Refer to?

Much has been said about verse 1, which reads:

“nə·’um Yah·weh la·ḏō·nî šêḇ lî·mî·nî”, which is literally, “Said Yahweh to my Lord sit at My Right Hand”

This verse has been used by the Jews, and Unitarians, and the Jehovah’s Witnesses, and others, to try to “prove”, that the Father alone is Yahweh, and Jesus Christ is eternally inferior, and no more than “’ăḏōn”, which is also used for humans, with the meaning, “sir, master”.

Rabbi Dovid Rosenfeld, says on the use of this Name, “I should note that the second “lord” in Hebrew is not “ado-nai” – the term the Torah reserves for God, but “adoni”. The latter is a simple Hebrew word which means “my lord” but is not sacred. Throughout the Torah that word is used in reference to honored human beings but never to God, e.g. Genesis 18:3, 23:6, 24:18, 31:35, 33:8, 34:14, 44:18, etc. Thus, it was incorrectly capitalized in your translation.” (https://www.aish.com/atr/Psalm-110-Two-Lords.html)

Then we have the Unitarians, “The Hebrew word translated “my lord” is adoni (pronounced “Adon nee”) in the standard Hebrew texts. This word is always used in Scripture to describe human masters and lords, but never God...The difference between adon (the root word), adoni (“lord,” always used of men or angels) and adonai (which is used of God and sometimes written adonay) is critical to the understanding of Psalm 110:1.” (https://www.biblicalunitarian.com/verses/psalm-110-1)

Here are some Bible passages, that show the Hebrew “’āḏōn”, is used for Almighty God, Yahweh:

Exodus 23:17, “Three times in the year all thy males shall appear before the Lord (’āḏōn) God (yehôvâh)”

Deuteronomy 10:17, “For the LORD (yehôvâh) your God ('ĕlôhı̂ym), he is God of gods and Lord of lords (’ăḏōn, ’ăḏōn), the Great (gâdôl) God (’ēl), the Mighty (hagibōr), and the Awesome (yârê'), who doesn’t respect persons or take bribes”

Joshua 3:11, 13, “Behold, the ark of the covenant of the Lord (’ăḏōn) of all the earth passeth over before you into Jordan...And it shall come to pass, as soon as the soles of the feet of the priests that bear the ark of the LORD (yehôvâh), the Lord (’ăḏōn) of all the earth”

Nehemiah 8:10, “for this day is holy to our Lord (’ăḏōn). And do not be grieved, for the joy of the LORD is your strength”

Psalm 145:5, “Great is our Lord (’ăḏōn), and abundant in Power”

Isaiah 1:24, “Therefore saith the Lord (’ăḏōn), the LORD (yehôvâh) of hosts, the Mighty One of Israel”

It is clear from the Bible’s own use, that the Name “’āḏōn”, is used many times for The Living God of the Bible. In none of these cases does anyone suggest that it should be rendered in English, as “lord”, and, not “Lord”. So, why in Psalm 110:1?

In verse 5, there are some Hebrew manuscripts of the Masoretic Text, which begun in the 6th century AD, by the Jews, that read:

“’ăḏōnāy ‘al-yəmînəḵā māḥaṣ bəywōm-’apwō məlāḵîm:”

The literal English translation is:

“Lord at Right Hand of You He will shatter on day of His anger kings”

“’ăḏōnāy”, is the more emphatic form of  “’āḏōn”, both are used for God, as well as humans. Some also argue, that “’ăḏōnāy”, is used only for God.  This is not true, as it is also used for humans; as in, Genesis 19:18; “And Lot said to them, “Oh, no, my lords (’ăḏōnāy)”, and Ezra 10:3, “Now therefore let us make a covenant with our God to put away all the wives, and such as are born of them, according to the counsel of my lord (’ăḏōnāy)”.

Had verse 5 only read “’ăḏōnāy”,  there would not be any problem it understanding this in the same sense as “’āḏōn”, in verse 1.

But, this is not the case, as there are about 20 Hebrew manuscripts, of the Masoretic Text, that has “Yahweh”, in verse 5. This causes problems with those who suppose that Jesus Christ is never called “Yahweh”. “Solutions” for this reading has to be found!

As found in The Jewish Study Bible, by Adele Berlin and Marc Zvi Brettler:

“The Lord is at your right hand. He crushes kings in the day of His anger”. Note, “The Lord is at your right hand, a reversal of places with v. 1. Here  the idea is that God stands ready to assist the king, or, more specifically, is the king's weapon (the right hand held the weapon); cf. 16.8; 18.36; 109.31”

In verse 1 we read, that “’āḏōn”, is at “the Right Hand” of “Yahweh”, as elsewhere in the Bible. Now, in verse 5, according to this cop-out from the truth, it is suggested that, “Yahweh”, in verse 1, changes places with “’āḏōn”, and sits at His Right Hand! This is getting very desperate now! Such a clear distortion of what the Bible actually says! As I have said, there is not a single verse in the 66 Books of the Holy Bible, that even hints at, God the Father, sitting at the Right Hand of Jesus Christ! This is a non starter. This nonsense is followed in the commentary by Allen P Ross, and some others, who cannot accept the Truth as found in the Bible!

Then, we have, the Liberal, Interpreters Bible Commentary, says on verse five, that the reading "at thy right hand", should be emended to read, "at His right hand"!

Some have also tried to insert the word “is”, “The Lord is at your right hand”, which is meant to show that Yahweh is at the Right Hand of the Messiah, for supporting Him.

Some Jewish translations correctly read as the Hebrew is, literally in English:“The Lord at thy right hand crusheth kings on the day of his wrath” (Isaac Leeser)

“The lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath” (Dr A Benisch; Jewish School and Family Bible, Vol. IV)

This whole Psalm is about The Messiah, as in Prophecy, and nothing to do with any earthly king. This Oracle by Yahweh which is Addressed “la·ḏō·nî”, “to my Lord”. “In the Midrash Tehillim on this passage, it is said, " God spake thus to the Messiah” (J Stewart Perowne, The Book of Pslams, p.288). This is a Jewish writing. John Gill says in his commentary, that the Targum of Jonathan reads in verse 1, “the Lord said to his Word”. In verse 2 we read, “Your Mighty sceptre (see, Hebrews 1:8). Rule in the midst of Your enemies!”. And, verse 3, “Your people will offer themselves freely on the day of Your Power”. Verse 4, “You are a Priest forever after the order of Melchizedek.”. Verse 6, “He will execute judgment among the nations… He will shatter chiefs over the wide earth”. It is clear that all of these words are only possibly true in someone who is not a human. It is also clear from the language here, that these words are in relation to “la·ḏō·nî”, in verse 1.

The Speaker’s Commentary is absolutely right in what it says on verse 5;

“It seems natural to consider v 5 a continuation of the Psalmist's address to Messiah, rather than a somewhat abrupt address to Jehovah Himself, inserted between the address to the Messiah (v.4) and the meditation upon His deeds (v 6). The latter verse and v 7 cannot possibly apply to any but Messiah.”

Adam Clarke, in his commentary says, on verse 1;

“one MS. seems to have read  layhovah, "Jehovah said unto Jehovah, 'Sit thou on my right hand,'" c. See De Rossi”

This is a Jewish manuscript, and it shows that there was a reading in verse 1, that agrees with the better attested reading in verse 5, of “Yahweh”. This also shows that this Psalm was corrupted in the Hebrew text, in many places.

There are other such deliberate corruptions in the Hebrew text, as in Jeremiah 23:6; where the literal translation of the Hebrew text, into English reads:

“And this Name of Him which He will be called Yahweh our Righteousness”

Which is The Messiah, the Lord Jesus Christ.

In the Hebrew Aleppo, Leningrad And Cairo codices, the Hebrew has been altered to read: ״יהוה |   צדקנו״, where a separation mark has been placed between “Lord (Yah·weh)” and “our Righteousness (ṣiḏ·qê·nū)”. This separation mark is not part of the original Hebrew as written by the Prophet Jeremiah, but belongs to the Masoretic 'pointing', which was done between the 6th and 10th centuries AD. The Cairo Codex is 9th cent. AD, the Aleppo Codex is of the 10th cent., and the Leningrad, is the 11th. These “pointings” have nothing to do with the actual Text of the Original Autographs of the Hebrew Bible.

The Biblical TRUTH, that Jesus Christ, IS The Eternal YHWH, cannot be destroyed by wicked and corrupt humans!